Composition and classification of the hottest tyre

2022-08-06
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Composition and classification of tyres

composition of tyres

I. tyres with inner tubes

tyres with inner tubes are composed of outer tubes, inner tubes and cushion belts. The outer tire is an elastic rubber bag, which can prevent the inner tire from mechanical damage, so that everyone in the inflation chamber must pay attention to the tire to maintain the specified size, bear the traction and braking force of the car, and ensure the grip between the tire and the road surface. The inner tube is an annular rubber tube, which is placed in the outer tube and filled with compressed air. There is a cushion belt between the inner tube and the rim (the tyre used on the deep rim does not need the cushion belt). The cushion belt is a circular tape with a certain section shape to protect the inner tube from wear. The main disadvantage of the inner tube tire is that the driving temperature is high, which is not suitable for high-speed driving, and can not fully ensure the driving safety. When in use, the inner tube is in an extended state in the tire, and a slight puncture will form a small hole, which will quickly depressurize the tire

II. Tubeless tire

the inner tube is not used, and the air is directly filled into the inner cavity of the outer tube. The tightness of the tire is achieved by the outer tire closely fitting on the rim of the special structure. In order to prevent the air from diffusing through the tire wall, the inner surface of the tire is lined with a special sealing layer, so that the air can only escape from the perforation during puncture. However, the perforation is compressed by the elasticity of the tire material, and the air can only leak out slowly from the tire, so the internal pressure in the tire decreases gradually. If the objects (nails, etc.) penetrating the tubeless tire remain in the tire, the objects will be tightly wrapped by a thick rubber layer. In fact, the air in the tire will not escape for a long time. The advantage of tubeless tire is not only to improve driving safety. This kind of tire can continue to drive when the perforation is small. It is easier to repair the tire midway than tubeless tire. There is no need to disassemble the rim. Therefore, in some cases, it is not necessary to "reprint, please indicate the source of Huaxia mold" spare tire. Tubeless tyres have good softness, which can improve the cushioning performance of tyres. Under high-speed driving, the heat generation is small and the working temperature is low, which can improve the service life of tyres

III. structure of outer tube

outer tube is composed of carcass, buffer layer, tread, sidewall and bead. The section of the outer tire can be divided into several separate areas: crown area, shoulder area (tread slope), flexion area (sidewall area), reinforcement area and bead area

1. The carcass is the main body of the hanging cord fabric that makes the outer tire strong, flexible and elastic. The carcass needs to have sufficient strength and elasticity to withstand strong vibration and impact, as well as multiple deformations caused by radial, lateral and circumferential forces acting on the outer tire during driving. The carcass is composed of one or more layers of rubber hanging cord fabrics, which can provide the carcass and the whole tire with necessary strength

2. The film or hanging cord film composite structure between the carcass and tread of the buffer layer is called the buffer layer. The buffer layer is used to prevent the vibration and impact of the carcass, reduce the traction and braking force acting on the carcass, and enhance the adhesion between the tread rubber and the carcass. The buffer layer of radial tire is generally called belt layer because of its different functions

the maximum stress produced in the outer tire is concentrated in the buffer layer, and the temperature of the buffer layer is the highest. The material and structure of the buffer layer generally vary according to the specification and structure of the outer tube and the material of the carcass

3. The outermost rubber layer of the tread outer tire in contact with the road surface is called the tread (generally, the outermost rubber at the crown, shoulder, sidewall and reinforcing area of the outer tire is collectively referred to as the tread rubber). The tread is used to prevent the carcass from mechanical damage and early wear, transmit the vehicle's traction and braking force to the road surface, increase the grip between the outer tire and the road surface (soil), and absorb the vibration of the tire during operation. The part of the tread where the tire directly contacts the road surface during normal driving is called the driving surface. The surface of the running surface is composed of different shaped pattern blocks and grooves, and the protruding part is the pattern block. The surface of the pattern block can increase the grip of the tire and the road surface (soil) and ensure the necessary anti sideslip force of the vehicle. The lower layer of the tread groove is called the tread base, which is used to cushion the vibration and impact

tread patterns can be divided into three basic types: ordinary patterns, off-road patterns and mixed patterns. The common tread pattern is used for tires running on hard roads. The tread pattern can be divided into horizontal (such as smoke pipe) and vertical (such as sawtooth). The total area of the tread block accounts for 70 ~ 80% of the running surface of the tread. The tread pattern shall enable the tires to have good longitudinal and lateral grip with the road surface, low noise and high wear resistance. The off-road pattern is used for tyres that run without road surface. The patterns are divided into two types: undirected (such as horse teeth) and oriented (such as herringbone). The total area of the pattern block accounts for 40 ~ 60% of the running surface of the tread. The pattern block is thick, so that the tire has high driving performance and good self-cleaning. The mixed pattern is used for both hard and dirt road tyres. The running part of the tread is composed of ordinary pattern blocks and off-road pattern blocks. The total area of the pattern blocks accounts for about 70% of the total area of the running part of the tread. The outer side of this pattern can ensure good grip between the tire and the soil, so that the vehicle can run on bad roads, and the wear of the tread is greater than that of the common pattern

4. The rubber covering layer attached to the sidewall of the carcass to prevent the carcass from mechanical damage and other external effects (such as mud, water, etc.) is called the sidewall. The difference between the sidewall and the tread is that it does not bear large stress, does not contact with the ground, and therefore is not subject to wear. The sidewall mainly works in the bending state, so the thickness of the sidewall can be slightly thin, but it can effectively bear multiple bending stresses, and has good light aging resistance and ozone aging resistance. The sidewall is marked with the trademark of the tire, etc

5. The rigid part of the bead used to fix the outer tire on the rim but not easy to stretch is called the bead. The tyre bead can make the outer tyre firmly fixed on the rim and resist the force that makes the outer tyre separate from the rim when the vehicle is running. The side of the tyre bead that faces the tyre cavity is called the tyre toe, and the side that contacts the rim edge is called the tyre heel. The bead is composed of steel ring, bead wrapped carcass cord fabric and bead wrapped fabric. The steel ring is composed of steel ring, Triangle rubber and steel ring cloth. The steel ring makes the steel ring rigid and strong

tire classification

tire classification generally refers to the classification according to the use of tires. For example, in China's tire national standard, the American tire and rim manual, the European tire and rim standard email:ang@, the Japanese tire standard and the international tire standard are classified according to the use, which can be divided into the following types:

1 Car tire

is a tire installed on a car. It is mainly used for high-speed driving on good roads. The maximum driving speed can reach more than 200 km/h. It requires comfortable riding, low noise, good handling and stability. Most of the tire structures adopt radial structure. It is divided into different series according to the requirements of driving speed. In the standards and manuals, 95 and 88 series are bias tires, and 80, 75, 70 and 65 series are radial tires

2. Light truck tire

generally refers to truck tire with rim diameter of 16 inches or less and section width of 9 inches or more. This kind of tire is mainly used on highways, and the driving speed can generally reach 80 ~ 100km/h.

3 Truck and bus tires

generally refer to trucks, dump trucks, various special-purpose and trailer tires with rim diameter of 18-24 inches and section width of 7 inches or more. The driving surface is relatively complex, including good asphalt road, poor gravel road, dirt road, muddy road, ice and snow road, and even no road conditions. The driving speed will generally not exceed 80km/h.

4 Construction machinery tires

construction machinery tires are installed on construction machinery vehicles for special operations, such as loaders, bulldozers, excavators, land levelers, rollers and stonework machines. The driving speed is not high, but the road conditions and load performance requirements are harsh. The tire mainly adopts the bias tire structure, but the French Michelin company also adopts the radial structure. The tire section width can be classified into two series: standard tire and wide base tire

5. Off road vehicle tyres

off road vehicles are driven by front and rear wheels. Off road vehicle tyres are mainly used on bad roads, such as desert, muddy land, soft soil or other roads without road surface, which require tyres to have high trafficability. Off road tyres often use low pressure tyres, and some also use pressure regulating tyres, which can adjust the tyre pressure according to the road conditions. In order to improve the off-road trafficability, measures such as widening the tire section and rim width and reducing the rim diameter are generally adopted to increase the grounding area and reduce the grounding pressure. In addition to the bias tire structure, the radial tire structure is also used

6. Agricultural and forestry machinery tyres

agricultural tyres are mainly installed on tractors, combain combine harvesters and agricultural machinery vehicles. Forestry machinery tires are installed on forestry tractors and forestry machinery for forestry harvesting, skidding, shoveling and excavation. The characteristics of these two tires are that the driving speed requirements are not high, but their use conditions are harsh. They often drive on bad field roads, hard stubble lands or gravel mountain roads, or even roads without roads, and the tires are easy to be scratched or cut. Another feature is intermittent operation, short mileage, but long service life. Therefore, the tire is required to have good flexion cracking resistance and aging resistance. The tyres are mainly of diagonal structure, but also of radial structure

7. Industrial vehicle tyres

are mainly used for pneumatic tyres, semi-solid tyres and solid tyres on industrial vehicles. It is divided into battery car tires, forklift tires and flatbed car tires

8. Motorcycle tires

used for tires on motorcycles. Including motorcycle tires, moped tires and small wheel diameter motorcycle tires

9. Aviation tire

pneumatic tire for aircraft

10. Special vehicle tires

include gun truck tires, tank tires, armored vehicle tires, desert tires, explosion-proof vehicle tires, etc

11. Power car tyres

pneumatic tyres for bicycles, tricycles and trolleys. (end)

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